Thursday, 29 April 2021

In Cucurbita the pith degenerates largely to cavity

 In Cucurbita the pith degenerates largely to cavity



Pith or Medulla : It constitutes the central part of the stem. Pith consists of rounded, oval or polygonal parenchyma cells. Intercellular (8) spaces are abundant, The cells store food materials and waste products. In Cucurbita the pith degenerates largely to form cavity. 

A central Reasons of Identification : (i) Occurrence of multicellular hair epidermis, over (ii) Collenchymatous hypodermis. (iii) Wedge- shaped conjoint collateral and open vascular bundles arranged in a single ring. (iv) Prèsence of bundle caps or sclerenchymatous pericycle over vascular bundles, (v) Endarch xylem.

 1.1.4 Internal Structure of Monocot Stem : Monocot stem possesses only primary structure. It is usually circular in outline. The stem may be solid (e.g., Maize) or fistular (e.g. Grass). Monocot stem does not have differentiation of various components of ground tissue system.

 Vascular bundles are also scattered. The different components of monocot stem from outside towards inside are epidermis, hypodermis, ground tissue and vascular strand.

 Epidermis : It is uniseriate outer protective layer of living parenchymatous cells. The cells are rectangular-barrel shaped in outline. The outer walls are cutinised and silicified. Distinct layer of cuticle with or without silica incrustation is present on the outer side. At places the epidermis bears stomata. Each stomate or stoma is surrounded by two dumb.

Protoxylem lies towards the centre of the stem while metaxylem

 Protoxylem lies towards the centre of the stem while metaxylem



Protoxylem lies towards the centre of the stem while metaxylem occurs towards the side of cambium. Such a type of xylem is called éndarch xylem. Protoxylem has narrow small elements while metaxylem has larger and broader elements. Vessels occur in the form of a few radial rows. Tracheids occur in between the radial rows of vessels.

 Xylem fibres are also present here and there. Xylem parenchyma is present mostly towards the outer side of vascular strand. Xylem conducts water and mineral salts. Vessels and tracheids constitute the tracheary elements. However, most of the conduction is carried out by vessels.

 Tracheary elements of protoxylem have annular and spiral thickenings while those of metaxylem have pitted thickenings. Along with conduction of sap, the tracheary elements provide mechanical strength.

 Xylem fibres are purely mechanical in function. Xylem parenchyma stores food. It also helps in lateral conduction of sap. Medullary Rays : They are nonvascular areas present in between the vascular bundles. 

 They are made up of radially elongated Theychymatous cells. Cells are larger than those of cortex. Medullary rays take part in radial conduction of materials - food, water, (7) gases, etc. However, intercellular spaces are very few.

Intrafascicular cambium takes part in secondary growth

Intrafascicular cambium takes part in secondary growth



Vascular Strand : It consists of a ring of vascular bundles. The adjacent vascular bundles are separated by medullary rays. Such vascular strand is called eustele. In Cucurbita vascular bundles occur in two alternate rings. Vascular bundles are wedge-shaped in outline with the broader side towards the pericycle and narrower side towards the centre. 

Each vascular bundle is conjoint, that is, it possesses both phloem and xylem. The vascular bundles are collateral with phloem lying on the outer side and xylem towards the inner side with both being present on the same radius. The vascular bundles in Cucurbita are bicollateral. 

A strip of intrafascicular cambium occurs in between a phloem and xylem. Such a vascular bundle is called open vascular bundle. The cambial cells are thin walled and meristematic. They are actually fusiform in outline but appear reçtangular in T.S. Intrafascicular cambium takes part in secondary growth or formation of secondary vascular tissues.

  It consists of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and a few phloem fibres. Companion cells control the function of sieve tubes. Phloem parenchyma stores food. It also allows lateral flow of the same.

 Phloem fibres provide mechanical strength. a In phloem, a distinction of protophloem and metaphloem is absent but in xylem distinction into proto xylem and metaxylem is well.

Friday, 16 April 2021

Guidance should be provided at school level discussion

Guidance should be provided at school level discussion



  Stancy Hall, “Adolescence is a period of great stress and strain, storm and strive.  In fact very revolutionary change take place in personality of a child at this stage.  "In stage children undergo radical physical, mental and emotional changes. This period is a time of mental and emotional struggle for them, so in this stage children should be given proper advice and guidance if EA. 

 Provide proper advice and guidance to them. Theoretical knowledge about changes should be imparted, to provide advice and guidance on various types of exercises or exercises and sports for the physical development and physical fitness of queens in this state if EA.

Guidance should be provided at school level discussions, oratory competitions, literary discussions etc. Those interested in co-curricular activities such as Ray should be advised. They should make efforts to take interest in activities like music, painting in order to inculcate their instincts like sexual instincts, collectivism, combative instincts.  Guidance should be provided on various types of occupations that Sikhs can cultivate.

 It is advisable to collect tickets, collect coins, collect pictures.  Guidance should be given on participating in sports competitions to elevate their fighting spirit. Participate in co-curricular activities and school or community activities, organize such activities and take leadership training if EA.

Adolescence in the puberty is ending; And some of the adults can be seen in the symptoms. It is not a teenager and not the governance. As such, the face of its conflicts in its signativate life is to face the conflict with adaptation. It sometimes fails to adapt to the situation sometimes and forsad the thor's disappointment. 

The longing for social freedom prevails in them

  The longing for social freedom prevails in them



Individuals in this stage experience strong impulses. As their se develop at this stage, they crave for gratification, but they cannot experience gratification due to social restrictions and rules. So he finds different ways for sexual gratification. He longs for heterosexual friendship.

 An intense longing for cohabitation of hetero persons arises. Yet as social constraints become a barrier it finds failed paths to sexual triad. They fall victim to some of the taboo concepts.

 Menstruation or menstruation begins in the tenses of this stage. They feel confused. If proper guidance. If left unmanaged, they can be left astray and lose the right path. problems in individuals with this condition can be confusing. Social problems: The social problems of adolescence are as follows. The problem of adaptation with family members The longing to be free from social constraints.

 The struggle between parents The struggle between parents The gap between two generations The aversion to social traditions, customs Religious and skeptical attitudes towards social beliefs.

 The above social problems of adolescence arise in the lives of teenagers. Sometimes family conflicts arise out of it. They do not want social restrictions and restrictions. The longing for social freedom prevails in them. Acceptance in society they want. He feels confused between the constant control of the elders and the constant advice.

 This creates a gap between the two generations. Adolescents who are unable to adapt socially in this situation run away from society. Sometimes taking refuge in escapism. 

Adolescents living under certain restrictions become frustrated with not being able to find a way out of the real situation. Various problems arise from it. Behavioral Strangeness: Adolescence is a transitional period.

 Adolescents in this state sometimes suffer from emotional imbalances. This kind of emotional imbalance does not show consistency and harmony in Tasan's behavior, the same kind of situation makes him happy once in a while, his situation sometimes leads to him breaking down mentally.

 Weeds experience a special psychological state due to various problems of this type of sleep. This condition is called tension. Direct and indirect efforts are being made to get rid of such tension. 

Such indirect measures are called defense mechanisms. Appropriate advice and guidance should be provided by parents, teachers and the society for a pleasant solution to the problems of the youth.